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Mycological Dictionary

In this space we describe the most common terms in the field of production and cultivation of mushrooms

A

Actinomicetes

A class of prokarryotes with fungal characteristics including hyphae and the formation of conidia.

Agar

A hydrocolloid derived from some red seaweeds (e.g. Graciliaria, Gelidium, etc.)commonly used for solidifying culture media for supporting the growth of mushrooms cultures and various microbial organisms.

Agaric

A gill-bearing mushrooms. A member of the family Agaricaceae.

Anaerobic

Not requiring free, molecular oxygen for respiration.

Anastomosis

The fusion between branches of the same or different hyphae  followed by an exchange of cellular contents  to form a network.

Angiocarpic

Development of primordium, which proceeds inward and is enclosed.

Annulus

A ringlike partial veil around the stipe after expansion of the pileus.

Ascomycetes

A group of fungi that have in common that they produce their sexual spores inside specialised cells (asci) , wich usually contain eight spores.

Ascus (pl. asci)

A saclike cell typical of the class Ascomycetes, usually containing eight meiospores(ascospores).

Autoclave

A strong  vessel used for sterilization by generating sterilizing teperatures under steam pressure to prevent liquids from boiling over. Commonly at a teperature of 121ºC . Autoclaves are commonly used for preparing culture media, for preparing mushrooms spawn substrates, and for routine sterilization of other materials.

B

Bacteria

Unicellular micro-organisms that may cause contamination in culture work. Grain spawn is very easily contaminated with bacteria.

Bagasse

The crushed juiceless remain of sugarcane as it comes from the mill. 

Basidiocarp

Fruiting body of the Basidiomycetes.

Basidiomycetes

The classe of fungi that bear spores(basidiospores) upon a clublike cell know as a basidium. The gill, pore, tooth, jelly and some cup mushrooms are Basidiomycetes.

Basidiospore

A fungal sexual spore (meiotic spore) produced following a sexual process and developed on the outside fo a basidium.

Basidium

A microscopic club-shaped structure on the outside of wich are attached several spores(usually four) and developing as the result of a sexual process. 

Biological efficiency

A practical estimate of ability of mushrooms to convert substrate into fruiting bodies. Calculated by dividing the total fresh weight of mushrooms harvested from a crop (several flushes) by the total air-dry weight of substrate and expressing the fraction as percent. May be greater than 100%

Biomass

The total organic mass ina specified area or volume.

Bioonversion

The process of conversion of biomass (organic matter-mostlly from plants) into food, feed, biogas, or biofertilizer through the activity of living organisms, mostly by fungi.

Bioremediation

Refers to the process of remedying some harmful or potentially harmful situation by biological means. These harmful situations may invlve polluted water, soils with harmful pesticides, materials that are contaminated with toxic or difficult-to-manage organic pollutants.

Biotechnology

Those  processes that produce commercial quantities of useful substances through the use od microorganisms, plant cells, animal cells, or part of cells such as enzymes.

Bran

The broken coat of the seed of weat, rye, or other cereal grain separated from the kernel. Generally,relatively high in vitamins and commonly used for this purpose in substrates for growing fungi.

Brown rot fungi

Mushrooms utilizing onlu cellulose and hemicellulose; the lignin part remains unutilized or less utilized, resulting in the decomposed substrate having a brownish apperance.

Button

A young fruiting body beore it has opened.

C

Cap

Technically, the pieus, or upper portion of certain types of ascocarps and basiocarps.

Carpophore

The fruiting body of higher fungi; the scientific term for the mushroom proper.

Casing soil

The covering consisting of a thin layer of soli (or peat), witch is placed on the compost in a mushroom bed to induce fruiting after the mycelium from de spawn has penetrated the bed.

Cellulose

A polysaccharide, made up of glucose units, that constitutes the chief component of cell walls and woody parts of plants. It is more easy to degrade than lignin. Cellulose is probably best known as the raw material for paper. Cotton waste contains high amounts of cellulose, sawdust contains cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

Clamidospore

A thick-wallet asexual spore made from a hyphal cell that becomes segregated from the parent mycelium. Commonly imparts resistantce to environmental extremes.

Clamp connection

A small, semicircular, hollow bridge laterally attached to he wall of two adjoining cells spanning the septum between them. This bridge permits the passage of one of the products of the conjugate (simultaneous) dividion of the dikaryotic nuclei into the penultimate cell. This is important in maintaining the dikaryotic condition (two compatible nuclei in the same cell), which is characteristic of most Basidiomycetes.

Compost

The fermented substrate. The reason for composting substrate in mushroom cultivation is to make it more selective for the desired mushroom. A mixture usually consisting largely of decaying organic matter. Different types of mushrooms require different types of compost for the selective growth of edible mushrooms.Agaricus bisporus grows on fermented compost, which is traditionally developed from wheat straw mixed with horse manure, and it requires higher mitrogen content. The other cultivated mushroom are grown on almost  raw or less composted lignocellulosic materials, which are usually referred to as substrates.

Composting

A process of microbial fermentation. Through composting, a misture of rich organic materialis converted into a stable medium, which is selective for the growth of a particular mushroom but is not suitable, or is less favorable, for the growth of competing microorganisms. The basic of this selectivity, however, cannot be attibuted to one factor or one aspect of the entire system. The physical, chemical, and biological aspects of composting are fundamentally  interrelated, but can be artificially separated for the convenience of investigation and discussion.

Conidia

A uninucleate, exteriorly borne cell formed by constriction of conidiophore.

Conidiophore

A specialized stalk arising from mycelium upon which conidia are borne

Contaminant

Any organism other than the one desiredto be cultivated.

Cultivation technology

The technology for mushroom cultivation can be primitive as in rural farming in developing countries. It can also be highly industrialized. The latter requires advanced knowledge of mushroom biology and technology, and the use of sophisticatedequipement.

culture (agaricus)

Complicated operation involving a number of different operations, including the selection of an acceptable fruiting culture of the mushroom species, preparation of spawn and compost/substrate, inoculation of compost, crop care , harvesting, preservation of the harvested mushrooms, and marketing.

Culture (enoki)

 Complicated operation involving a number of different operations, including the selection of an acceptable fruiting culture of the mushroom species, preparation of spawn and compost/substrate, inoculation of compost, crop care , harvesting, preservation of the harvested mushrooms, and marketing.

culture (fungi)

Complicated operation involving a number of different operations, including the selection of an acceptable fruiting culture of the mushroom species, preparation of spawn and compost/substrate, inoculation of compost, crop care , harvesting, preservation of the harvested mushrooms, and marketing.

culture (maitake)

Complicated operation involving a number of different operations, including the selection of an acceptable fruiting culture of the mushroom species, preparation of spawn and compost/substrate, inoculation of compost, crop care , harvesting, preservation of the harvested mushrooms, and marketing.

culture (mushrooms)

Complicated operation involving a number of different operations, including the selection of an acceptable fruiting culture of the mushroom species, preparation of spawn and compost/substrate, inoculation of compost, crop care , harvesting, preservation of the harvested mushrooms, and marketing.

Culture (ostreatus)

 Complicated operation involving a number of different operations, including the selection of an acceptable fruiting culture of the mushroom species, preparation of spawn and compost/substrate, inoculation of compost, crop care , harvesting, preservation of the harvested mushrooms, and marketing.

culture (pleurotus)

Cultivation of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus known as oyster mushroom, girgola, orellana... . This activity includes different operations: acquisition by the grower of the compost already inoculated and suitable for the oyster mushroom, colonization of the compost by the mycelium (incubation), care in the cultivation or growth phase of mushrooms (control of temperature, humidity, oxygen level), harvesting, preservation of harvested mushrooms, preparation and packaging of mushrooms, marketing and marketing.

culture (shiitake)

Cultivation of the fungus Lentinus edodes known as shiitake . This activity includes different operations: acquisition by the grower of compost already inoculated and suitable for shiitake, colonization of compost by mycelium (incubation), care in the cultivation or growth phase of shiitakes mushrooms (control of temperature, humidity, oxygen level), harvesting, preservation of harvested mushrooms, preparation and packaging of mushrooms, marketing and marketing.

Shiitake substrate can be purchased incubated or unincubated and the substrate can be pasteurized or sterile.

culture (spore)

A culture derived by isolation of a single spore and its subsequent germination and developement into a mycelium.

culture (tissue)

A means of cloning living specimens while preserving their genetic constitution. Any part of a young mushroom may be used, but is preferable to take tissue from the upper part of the stipe since this area is a region of rapid cell elongation.

Culture collection

A reference collection and preservation of different species and strains of mushroom or cultured cells.

Culture medium

Micro-organisms differ in the nutritional needs. A large number of fifferent growth media have been developed, PDa-agar and malt agar can be used fr most cultivated mushrooms.

Cup

Tecnically, the volva, which is located at the base of the stipe of certain mushrooms. The cup is the remnant of the universal veil.

Cystidium

A sterile, generally light-colored conical or cylindrical end of the hypha in the hymenium of certain Basidiomycetes, differing morphologically from the basidium.

D

Dictyosomes

Clusters of vesicules located near the aèx of the hypha, probably derived from the Golgi apparatus and originating from the endoplasmic reticulum. These secretory vesicles are thought to play a role in the formation of new wall components.

E

Egg

The button stage of a mushroom with a universal veil (e.g., Volvariella volvacea)

Ergosterol

An unsaturated hydrocarbon of the sterol group. Present of fungi, unlike the membranes of other eukaryotic organisms, which have cholesterol.

F

Fermentation

The oxidative breakdow of complex substances caused by the influence of enzymes or ferments. Easily accessible nutrients will be degraded by micro-organisms which makes the substrate more selective.

Flush

The term used for the apperance of mushrooms at intervals (rhythmic cycle) for harvesting.

Fructification

Fruiting body

Fruiting body

The mushroom structure

Functional food

Foods for specified health use

G

Germination

The spreading of hyphae from spore.

Gills (or lamellae)

The radially arranged, vertical plates below the cap of a mushroom on which spores are formed.

Gleba

The sporogenous tissue forming the central mass of the sporophore in some Basidiomycetes such as puffballs and stinkhorns.

H

Hallucinogen

A drug or chemical substance whose most prominent pharmacological action is on the central nervous system, producing optical or auditory hallucinations, perceptual disturbances, and disturbantes of the thought process.

Hardwood

Used  here in broad sense to denote any tree that is not a conifer. Note that not all hardwoods are in fact harder than all softwoods (wood from coniferous trees).

Hemicellulose

A gummy substance intermediate in chemical composition between the sugars and cellulose. Hemicelluloses are second only to cellulose as the most abundant compound in the plant cell wall.

Heterokaryon

A cell of mycelium containing more than one genetically distinct type of mucleus in a common cytoplasm.

Heterothallism, Heterothallic

Condition of sexual reproductio of mushroom mycelium in which conjugation is possible only through the interaction of different mating types which are morphologicall similar strains; self sterility.

Heterotrophic

Term that refers to organims that must obtain their food frm organic mater; unable to use inorganic matter to form proteins and carbohydrates.

Homokaryon

A cell or mycelium containing only one genetic type of nucleus.

Homothallism, homothallic

A condition in which the thallus (vegetative phase) is self-fertilizing ( does not need copulation with another different mating haploid mycelium. Typically of mushrooms that produce two spores on a basidium. Species like Agaricus bisporus need only a single spore to form a mycelium capable of  fruit body formation.

Hymenium

The fertile outer layer of cell from which basidia, cystidia, and aother cells are produced. 

Hypha, hyphae

Condición A tubular, filamentous structure , which grows at the tip and is the basic unit of any mushroom.

I

Incubation

The period after inoculation (preferably at a temperture optimal for mycelial growth) during which the mycelium grows vegetatively.

Innoculation

The planting of mushroom spawn into the prepared substrate or compost.

Inoculum

The material (e.g., bacteria viruses, spores, etc.) used in making an inoculation (e.g., introducing the inoculum into an organism or substrate material that will support its growth).

K

Karyogamy

The fusion of two compatible nuclei after cell fusion.

L

Lignicolus mushrooms

Mushroom that grow on wood or  on wood or a substrate composed od woody tissue.

Lignin

Polysaccharide present in plants that combines with cellulose to form the cell walls. Present in vegetable fiber and wood cells to the extend of 25 to 30 %.

Lyophilization

The process of rapidly freezing a substance at an extremely low temperture and then dehydrating in a high vacuum.

M

Mating systems(patterns of sexuality)

Mushrooms contain both self-fertile and self-sterile species. Self-fertilization (homothallism or homomixis) is probably the most common mode of sexual reproduction in the fungi as a whole, but in the Basidiomycetes, self-fertile species are in a distinct minority of only about 10%; self-sterile species (heterothallism or dimixis) are about 90%, of which 25% are bipolar and 65% are tetrapolar.

Mesophiles

Microorganisms have minima growth above 0ºC, maxima below 50ºC, and optima between 5 and 40ºC.

micelio enoki

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

micelio hongos

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

Micelio maitake

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

micelio pleurotus

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

micelio setas

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

micelio setas de ostra

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

micelio shiitake

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

micelio shitake

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

Micology

Study of fungi.

Mites

Any of a large number of arachnids, many of which live as parasites on fungi.

Monokaryon

A cell or hypha i which there are one or more haploid nuclei, all of  a single genetic type.

Mushroom

A macrofungus  with a distinctive fruiting body, which can be either hypogeous or epigeous, large enough to be seen with the naked eye and be picked by hand. It can be a basidiomycete or an ascomycete.

Mushroom biology

The branch of mycology that is concerned with the scientific study of mushrooms: it consists of two main components: mushroom science and mushroom biotechnology.

Mushroom biotechnology

Term concerned with mushroom products (mushroom derivatives), encompassing microbiology, fementation technology, processing, marketing, and management.

mushroom compost

The fermented substrate. The reason for composting substrate in mushroom cultivation is to make it more selective for the desired mushroom. A mixture usually consisting largely of decaying organic matter. Different types of mushrooms require different types of compost for the selective growth of edible mushrooms.Agaricus bisporus grows on fermented compost, which is traditionally developed from wheat straw mixed with horse manure, and it requires higher mitrogen content. The other cultivated mushroom are grown on almost  raw or less composted lignocellulosic materials, which are usually referred to as substrates.

Mushroom cultivation

 Complicated operation involving a number of different operations, including the selection of an acceptable fruiting culture of the mushroom species, preparation of spawn and compost/substrate, inoculation of compost, crop care , harvesting, preservation of the harvested mushrooms, and marketing.

Mushroom science

Science concerned with mushroom production (mushroom themselves), encompassing mcrobiology, composting technology, and environmental engineering, as well as marketing  and management.

mycelium

The network of hyphae that form the vegetative body of the fungus. The fungi are the fruiting bodies of the mycelium.

mycelium (agaricus)

The network of hyphae that form the vegetative body of the mushroom. The mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of the mycelium (edible part).

mycelium (commercial)

The network of hyphae that form the vegetative body of the fungus, grown on cereal grain (rye, millet, sorghum...). The fungi are the fruiting bodies of the mycelium.

Mycelium production

Multiplication of the pure culture of mycelium, of a variety of fungus, grown on cereal grains, asserin, etc. used as seed to inoculate the final substrate of the culture of a fungus. The genetic and cultural characteristics of the mushroom species go into the seed.

mycelium secondary

Dicarytic mycelium resulting from the plasmogamy of two compatible primary myceliums; the developed mycelium of the tissue of a fruiting body of most basidiomycetes.

Mycorrhiza

A symbiotic relationship between  fungi and plants.

Mycorrhizal fungi

Fungi that form a mutually beneficial symbiotic relationship with the rootlets of plants.

N

Nongreen revolution

Bioconversion of the huge lignocellulosic biomass waste materials by mushrooms by a multidisciplinary technology. This benefits human welfare threefold by increasing food supplies, enhancing health care, and reducing environmental pollution.

Nucleus

Concentrated mass of differentiated protoplasm in cells containing chromosomes and playing an integral role in the reproduction and continuation of genetic material.

Nutraceuticals

Foods of part of food, that provide medical or healthy benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease and diet supplements that deliver a concentrated form of a presumed bioactive agent from a food,presented in a nonfood matrix, and used to enhance health.

Nutriceuticals from fungi

A refined or partially defined extract (from mushrooms or other foods) that is consumed in the form of capsules or a tablests as a dietary supplement and that has potential therapeutic aplications.

P

Parasite

An organism that derives its nourishment from another living organism.

Pasteurization

A process of partial sterilization, usually involving heat treatment or irradiation to kill most of the mesophilic microorganisms present. When pasteurizing a substrate the harmful competitor (usually mesophilic) organisms are at a disadvantage, thus allowing the beneficial (thermophilic) organisms in the substrate to flourish.

Pathogen

Disease-causing organism.

PDA (potato dextrose agar)

The simplest and the most popular medium for growing mycelia of most cultivated mushrooms. It can be purchased commercially as a ready-mixed powder, which can be used directly to make the medium in the laboratory; alternatively, it can be prepared in the laboratory with the following ingredients: potato, diced, 200g; dextrose, 20 g; powdered agar or agar bars, 20 g; water, 1 liter.

Perlite

A glass volcanic rock with a pearly luster.

Petri dish

A round glass or plastic dish with a cover to observe the growth of microscopie organisms. The dishes are partly filled with sterile growth medium (or sterilised after they have nbeen filled). Petri dishes are much used to grow the mycelium which will inoculate the mother spawn.

pH value

A logarithmic index for the hydrogen ion concentration in an aqueous solution, used as a measure of acidity or alkalinity (meeasured at 25ºC). Most mushrooms grow best at approximately ph 7, but tolerata a wide range, from ph 4 to 10.

Phenotype

The observable physical characteristics of a living organism. The phenotype results from the interaction between genotype and the environment.

Pileus

The caplike part of the fruiting body, bearing the spore layer on its under surface.

Pinhead

A term to describe a very young mushroom when the cap has the size of a pin. A dotlike visible indication of mushroom primordium formation in a mycelium.

Plasmogamy

The fusion of protoplasts of two haploid cells without the fusion of their nuclei, as in certain fungi; cell fusion.

Polypore

Any of a large group of mostly tough, wood-inhabiting mushrooms, wich bear their spores in pores.

Polypropylene

A polymer of propylene used for the manufacture of plastic bags for cultivation of mushrooms since this polymer can withstand the temperature requires in autoclaving for sterilization (121ºC).

Polythene

Polyethylene used as a plastic.

Primordium

The mushrooms at the earliest stage of growth, synomymous with pinhead. The initial fruit body.

Pure culture

A culture that contains a population of only one species.

pure culture (strain)

Polysaccharide formed by glucose units that constitute the key component of cell walls and woody parts of plants.

R

Relative humidity

The percentage of moisture in the air compared to the maximal amount that the air can hold at that temperature and pressure.

S

Saprophagous

Feeding on decaying matter.

Saprophytic fungi

Fungi that live on dead or decaying organic matter for their nutrition.

Sclerotium, sclerotia

A resting stage of mycelium typified by a mass of hardened mycelium resembling a tuber and from which muchrooms, mycelia, or conidia can arise. Sclerotia are produced by both Ascomycetes and Basidimycetes.

Sector

Usually used to describe fans of morphologically  distinct from the type of mycelium preceding and bordering it.

Semilla

Condición sexual de reproducción del micelio de los hongos en la cual la conjugación es posible unicamente a través de la interacción de diferentes tipos de cruces, los cuales son cepas similares morfologicamente ; auto-esterilidad.

semilla hongos

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

Senescence

The state whereby a living organism declines in vigor due to age and becomes susceptible to disease, characterized by decreasing cell viability, decreasing cell divisions, and a loss in DNA copying ability.

Softwoods

Wood from coniferous trees.

Spawning

The planting of mushroom spawn into the prepared substrate or compost.

Specie

Fundamental unit of biological taxonomy. A biologically discrete group of closely related  individuals  which are capable of interbreeding and giving  rise to fertile progeny.

Spent substrate

The substrate remaining after the mushrooms have been harvested.

Spore

A microscopic cell capable of developing into an adult organism but, unlike a seed, not containing a preformed embryo.

Sporulation

Production of spores. Sometimes used for the formation of fruiting bodies in the Basidiomycetes.

Sterilization

The rendering of a substrate into a state in whcih all living organisms have been made nonviable. Sterilization by heat (steam) is the most commonly employed                                                             method in a mushroom cultivation.

Stipe

A stalklike support, or the scientific term for the stem of a mushrooms. Is the part of mushroom that holds the hat, and generally cylindrical in shape. Found in a number of important details to identify the species, such as, ease of separation, ornamentation, their placement on the hat, inside (solid or hollow) and consistency.

Stroma

A dense cushionlike aggregation of mycelium formed on the surface of the substrate, which generally does not lead to forming fruiting bodies.

Substratum (substrate)

Usually referring to the almost raw or less-composted lignocellulosic materials on which mushroom mycelium will grow; any materials used for growth of microorganisms.

Suplementos nutricionales

Polisacarido formado por unidades de glucosa que constituyen el componente clave de las paredes celulares y partes leñosas de las plantas.

sustrato hongos ex�ticos

Usually referring to the almost raw or less-composted lignocellulosic materials on which mushroom mycelium will grow; any materials used for growth of microorganisms.

sustrato maitake

Usually referring to the almost raw or less-composted lignocellulosic materials on which mushroom mycelium will grow; any materials used for growth of microorganisms.

sustrato setas

Usually referring to the almost raw or less-composted lignocellulosic materials on which mushroom mycelium will grow; any materials used for growth of microorganisms.

sustrato shiitake

Usually referring to the almost raw or less-composted lignocellulosic materials on which mushroom mycelium will grow; any materials used for growth of microorganisms.

sustrato shitake

Usually referring to the almost raw or less-composted lignocellulosic materials on which mushroom mycelium will grow; any materials used for growth of microorganisms.

Synthetic compost

Any substrate that is composed of agricultural and/or industrial waste materials mixed with various organic supplements.

T

Taxon

A taxonomic group group or entity, usually in reference to a species.

Thermophiles

Microorganisms that can make  activate growth at high temperature, have minima above 20ºC, máxima at or greater than  50ºC, and optima around 35ºC or slightly higher.

Trama

The internal layers of cells between the gills of mushroom.

U

Universal veil

A protective layer of tissue covering all or most of the young fruiting body of certain muchrooms.

V

Variety (strain)

The equivalent of race in plants and animals. The same species may consist of strains that vary considerably in genetic make-up, but all are sexually compatible.

Veil

A tissue  covering mushrooms as they develop.

Vermiculite

A micaceous mineral whose granules expand greatly at high temperatures to give a lightweight, highly water-absorbent material that is used in sed beds as a mulch.

Volva

The remnants of the universal veil at the base stalk in certain mushrooms, usually in a cuplike form or series of concentric rings or scales.

W

White rot fungi

Fungi that utilize cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components in substrate whith the help of cellulases and ligninolytic enzymes, resulting in the decomposition of lignin (delignification); the substrate is rendered light in color.

Consultancy

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Filtered Bags

Advantages of filtered bags

They remain soft and easy to seal after heat treatment in an autoclave for up to six hours at (125 ° C).There are many models and sizes of standard bags, with different types of filters and we can also customize them for special needs.They can provide an adequate exchange of gases, but excluding...

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Mycological Dictionary

Polythene

Polyethylene used as a plastic.

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